#medicalsciences #healthtourism- online Exhibition

On the occasion of the bicentenary of Louis Pasteur’s birth and of the first injection of insulin, Archives Portal Europe celebrates #medicalsciences and the medical profession with an online exhibition showcasing medical events and achievements from its network.

Our first stop in #medicalsciences history is NORWAY:

Our second stop in #medicalsciences history is TURKEY:

NORWAY

The Establishment of the Norwegian Healthcare System

We start with the National Archives of Norway and the Establishment of the Norwegian Healthcare System in the 17th century.

For Centuries, while royals and the wealthier social strata had access to good levels of professional medical care, the vast majority of the population relied on the assistance provided by religious institutions, as a form of charitable service, or by popular healers.

In the early modern period, however, with the progressive establishment of more centralised forms of government in the whole Europe, new forms of public health assistance began to emerge.

View of the city of Bergen, Norway. Engraving, Civitates Orbis Terrarum by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg, Vol. IV, Cologne, 1588.


The public healthcare system in Norway can be traced back to the 17th century, when King Christian IV appointed the first public doctor, Villads Nielsen Adamsen [Vilhadius Adamius] (ca.1564 – ca.1616) in Bergen, in July 1603.

The King nominated Adamsen as ordinario medico in Bergen, with the letter displayed below. This meant Adamsen would be paid from the public purse, as he was now allowed to dispose of some of the church’s income. Adamsen was the son of a Danish parish priest; he had studied in Padova, Rostock and Siena, focusing particularly on questions related to epidemics and public health.

Letter of appointment of Adamsen as Ordinario Medico – National Archives of Norway

In 1599 he arrived in Bergen, where he established himself and started medical practice. At
this time, Bergen was the most populous city in the Nordic region, with approx. 15,000 inhabitants served by only three doctors. In the year of Adamsen’s arrival, a plague broke out in the city. With the assistance of his collaborators, Adamsen helped and valiantly served Bergen’s citizens as the plague raged in the city for two years.
It is not certain whether Adamsen was the first doctor in the country to be paid as a public doctor, but he is certainly the one about whom historians know the most, and for this reason he is usually associated with the origin of the public healthcare system in Norway.

Treating Leprosy in Norway

Today’s stop on the #medicalsciences exhibition tour is dedicated to the achievements related to the treatment of a very contagious disease: Leprosy, which is still affecting many people in various parts of the World.

Leprosy, also known as Hansen’s disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, that has been a part of human history for at least 3,500 years.

Leprosy has been often associated with degraded living conditions and lack of hygiene throughout the centuries. And for this reason, Leprosy also frequently came with a certain degree of moral judgement and its transmission was often attributed to hereditary factors, with many being estranged from society when suspected to be infected or, especially, when the disease manifested itself with painful and physical deformations.


The Treatment of Leprosy (Hansens’s disease),1847, Bergen (Norway)
The Leprosy Museum in Bergen – St. Jørgen Hospital

In the 19th century, leprosy was discovered in some areas of the coast of Norway, in the western and northern parts of the country. Norwegian authorities tried to tackle the disease since its first cases appeared, with many physicians being quickly trained at the University of Oslo in 1816.

Leprosy soon became the focus of Norwegian medical science studies, with the city of Bergen playing a key role in international leprosy research during the 19th century. Thanks to a doctor in Bergen, Dr. Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), in 1873, the Mycobacterium leprae was identified as the main cause of the disease.

This discovery was a major achievement, as it proved that leprosy was an infectious disease caused by germs, and therefore unrelated to hereditary transmission or other miasmic origins.

Gerhard Henrik Armauer Hansen in his workroom. | The Leprosy Museum in Bergen

Hansen’s discovery was the scientific breakthrough that paved the way for the understanding and the development of future treatments of the disease. In fact, despite the initial opposition and even some lack of recognition, this discovery had a vital impact in fighting the disease.

The Leprosy Registry provided Dr. Armauer Hansen with the necessary scientific data that enabled him to support his discovery, proving the importance of isolating patients in order to stop the infection from spreading. His discovery had a huge impact all around the world, helping also to reduce the stigma around those who were affected by leprosy.

Documents related to the discovery are preserved at The Leprosy Archives of Bergen.

You can browse all the search results about Leprosy and Dr. Armauer Hansen provided by many institutions in Europes on Archives Portal Europe, here.

TURKEY

The Admiral Bristol Nursing School

The Koç Üniversitesi Suna Kıraç Library in Turkey preserves the history of the Admiral Bristol Nursing School. The American Hospital Nursing School was established in Instanbul on 20 May 1920 as part of the American Hospital, and today is part of the Koç University Faculty of Nursing.

Founded by Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol, the American Hospital Nursing School created as part of the American Hospital began offering a two-and-a-half-year education program.

The school was established to meet the healthcare needs of Americans in the Near East as well as the need to fill the shortage of nurses in Turkey, providing health care to all regardless of their nationality or religion.

Since 1920 the school has gone through numerous institutional changes and different names. In 1957 the school was registered by the Ministry of Education with the name Admiral Bristol Nursing School, becoming a 4-years vocational high school education that was equivalent to the Nurse Health High School.

In 1976 the school changed first name to the Admiral Bristol Nursing High School and, then, in 1981 it became the Admiral Bristol Nursing Vocational High School. In 1995 was further transformed into a School of Health affiliated to Koç University. The education program of the School of Health was designed in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing and followed international standards.

The collection preserved by the Koç University Library contains various documents related to the activities and history of the school, including many photos across time showing instances of the life and practices within the school.

The nursing education at the Admiral Bristol Nursing School

American Hospital building, n.d., ABHO_03_04_phg_03, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

Inspired by the nursing practices carried out by Florence Nightingale based on knowledge and compassion for the patients, the Admiral Bristol Nursing School was the first nursing education established in Istanbul in 1920. As part of the American Hospital, the Nursing school had a ‘private teaching institution’ status and offered courses as caregiver.

1982 Health Fair, In the “Become a Nurse” section of the Health Fair, nurse clothes from the beginning to present and the professional clothes of Admiral Bristol school graduates are at display, ABHO_01_06_phg_23, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

The training period was initially two and half years, then it was increased to three years, becoming finally four years in 1957. In order for the diplomas to be approved by the Ministry of Education and Health, students at the Admiral Bristol Nursing School had to take additional courses at other state-affiliated Nursing schools until 1957.

Admiral Bristol Nursing School students and nurse teachers, n.d., ABHO_03_01_phg_12, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library
Admiral Bristol Nursing High School, Candle Lighting ceremony, n.d., ABHO_02_01_phg_12,  Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

The beginning of the training period was celebrated with the suggestive Candle Lighting ceremony, which commemorates Florence Nightingale’s nighttime aid to wounded soldiers by candlelight.

Admiral Bristol Nursing School, 1994-1995 Academic Year, Candle Lighting ceremony, ABHO_04_05_phg_37, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Libra ry

During the Candlelighting ceremony, the aspiring nurses receive the traditional nurses cap as a badge of honour, and then they light a candle as a symbol of the lamp that Nightingale famously carried while caring for soldiers in field hospitals.

Admiral Bristol Nursing School, Candle Lighting ceremony, n.d., ABHO_03_01_phg_03, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

As part of their education, nurses at the Admiral Bristol Nursing School would take classes, for instance, on Diet and nutrition or anatomy, and they would also participate in different activities such as Gymnastic, Volleyball, and Theatre.

Admiral Bristol Private Health High School, ceremony, n.d., ABHO_05_06_phg_27, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library
Admiral Bristol Nursing School Students greet the audience on the stage after Hacivat and Karagöz show, n.d., ABHO_03_03_phg_18, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

Admiral Bristol Nursing College volleyball team, n.d., ABHO_03_03_phg_14, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

Practical training, Patient room, patients and nurses are seen during the practical training; one of the nurses is Gülsevim Çeviker, n.d., ABHO_05_03_phg_13, Admiral Bristol School of Nursing Collection, 1920-1999, Koç University Suna Kıraç Library

The collection preserved by the Koç University Library contains many, beautiful photos showing instances of life, education and other activities carried out at the Admiral Bristol Nursing School across time. You can browse the full list of documents related to the Nursing School preserved at the Koç University Library on their website.

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